Compare Operating Systems

This may be helpful — or not! I may misremember. New versions may put things in different places. The stars may be differently aligned. There may be some bias. :p Your brain is your best tool (and web search is your next one!).

Using different OSs

  GNU/Linux BSD Unix Mac OSX MicroSoft Windows 7
  "Red Hat family" (such as, Fedora) "Debian family" (such as, Ubuntu)
run admin commands $ su
then do your commands
With this way, you "act as root", but don't have all of root's environment and powers. (You can try sudo, but may need to set up sudoers file first. Fedora doesn't add users to sudoers automatically.)note
$ sudo <command>
With sudo, you "act as root", but don't have all of root's environment and powers.note
$ sudo <command>
With sudo, you "act as root", but don't have all of root's environment and powers.note
Right-click and "run as administrator" (?)
run as root $ su -
The '-' makes you "completely become root" - you get all root's environment.note
$ sudo su -
The '-' makes you "completely become root" - you get all root's environment.note
$ sudo -i
The '-' makes you "completely become root" - you get all root's environment.
"To enable the root user account in Leopard, start Directory Utility (/Applications/Utilities), clicking the lock to authenticate yourself, and selecting Security→Enable Root User.
You can run a login (sh) shell as root, even if the root user is not enabled, by entering the command sudo -i
You can also run an alternative shell, say tcsh, as root with the command sudo /bin/tcsh
Alternatively, you can run a default shell process with administrative privileges with the sudo -s command."
Right-click and "run as administrator" (?)
mounted in: /media /media /Volumes alphabet (such as E:\\)
see disks: # fdisk -l
$ df -h
same? same? Click on the MyComputer thingie.
hosts /etc/hosts /etc/hosts /private/etc/hosts c:\\Windows\system32\drives\etc\hosts
network configuration # ifconfig $ sudo ifconfig ? $ sudo ifconfig ? > ipconfig
server /usr/sbin/httpd /usr/sbin/apache2 usr/sbin/httpd WAMP: \wamp\bin\apache/Apachex.x\bin\httpd
document root more /var/www/ /var/www/html/ /Library/WebServer/Documents more
MAMP - /Applications/MAMP/htdocs/
WAMP: \wamp\bin\apache/Apachex.x\bin\httpd
main config file /etc/httpd/httpd.conf /etc/apache2/apache2.conf /private/etc/apache2/apache.conf? /private/etc/apache2/httpd.conf WAMP: \wamp\bin\apache/Apachex.x\conf\httpd.conf
vhosts config /usr/sbin/httpd/extra
$ a2ensite <virtualhostfile.conf>
$ a2dissite default
$ ln -s to make a symlink in sites-enabled
(don't forget to sudo for editing and commands.)
(don't forget to sudo for editing and commands.)
WAMP: \wamp\bin\apache/Apachex.x\conf\extra
other configs /usr/sbin/httpd/vhosts
Set up your virtual hosts in this file
Call this file near the bottom of the main httpd.conf
Many configs such as enabling .htaccess go in this filenote
/usr/sbin/httpd/extra/ ??
/private/etc/apache2/extra/httpd-*.conf WAMP: \wamp\bin\apache/Apachex.x\conf\extra
start | stop | restart # apachectrl [start|stop|restart] $ sudo service apache2 [start|stop|restart] $ sudo apachectrl [start|stop|restart]
$ sudo httpd -k [start|stop|restart]
WAMP: Click on the little icon thingie.
or: \wamp\bin\apache\bin\httpd start | stop | restart
CMS Permalinks or .htaccess not working: Should be ok: mod_rewrite is enabled by default.
→ Check "AllowOverride" directives in httpd.conf or virtual hosts file.
mod_rewrite may need to be enabled.
→ Check "AllowOverride" directives in apache2.conf or virtual hosts file.
mod_rewrite may need to be enabled (in main httpd.conf file)
→ Check "AllowOverride" directives in apache2.conf or virtual hosts file.
→ ownership of .htaccess may need to be changed to _www
enable mod_rewrite module in httpd.conf
If not working, check "AllowOverride" directives in httpd.conf or virtual hosts file.
apache on your lan System → Administration → Firewall : open port 80.
Check "allow,deny" directives in httpd.conf, vhosts files.
If still problem:
?? ?? ??
apache resources ?? ?? ??
configure /etc/php.ini
more in /etc/php.d/
?? ?? WAMP: \wamp\bin\apache/Apachex.x\bin\httpd
server location /usr/bin/mysqld /usr/bin/mysqld /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld WAMP: \wamp\bin\mysql\bin\mysqld
start server service mysqld start service mysqld start ?? sudo /usr/local/mysql/support-files/mysql.server [start|stop|restart] WAMP: ??
client location /usr/bin/mysql /usr/bin/mysql /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql WAMP: \wamp\bin\mysql\bin\mysql
login to mysql client mysql -u root -p mysql -u root -p ??? WAMP: none
XAMPP: none
use PHPMyAdmin
config files /etc/my.cnf other config:
/usr/share/mysql ? /etc/my.cnf template:
WAMP: \wamp\bin\mysql\conf ??
database files /var/lib/mysql ?? ?? WAMP: \wamp\bin\mysql\mysqln.n\data\
more useful mysql WAMP: ??
phpmyadmin /etc/phpMyAdmin/ /etc/phpmyadmin/
To get to phpmyadmin, you have to put ... http://localhost/phpmyadmin doesn't work. there's probably somewhere to fix this.
?? WAMP: ??
vi (vim) vi gets you vim more vi gets you only vi. You have to install vim yourself. Then type vim if you want vim (or make an alias). Only vi is installed. Have to get vim yourself.
2015 - It looks like vim is installed by defult now. vi runs vim
Huh? What's vi?
gui editors Gedit, Bluefish Gedit, Bluefish TextEdit, TextWrangler. more NotePad++ more
settings Must: character set UTF-8
Useful: show line numbers, auto-indent, syntax coloring, auto-completion
typing བོད་ཡིག་ →
fonts Any and all .ttf (TrueType) unicode Tibetan font
font location /usr/share/fonts/ more ?? /Library/Fonts/ /System/Library/Fonts/ more C:\\Windows\fonts\ more
input method (IME) scim, ibus more scim, ibus more System Preferences → Language & Text → Input Sources
then, enable Otani, QWERTY, or Wylie keyboard.
Control Panel → ... enable Tibetan keyboard ...
find programs to install GUI: System → Administration → Add/remove software GUI: "Software Center" ??? Search the web, take your chances.
Search with words describing the kind of program you are looking for.
Almost any program you want, will be in the repository: latest version, no viruses, ready to install.
install programs GUI: System → Administration → Add/remove software

# yum install <package>
GUI: ???

$ sudo apt-get install <package>
??? Go to website; pay money; scan for viruses; ...
find installed gui applications hopefully got added to Applications menu new gnome makes life more interesting for you! • Finder menu → Go → Applications
• open Finder, and under "Places" in sidebar → Applications
Start menu: view programs, or type in the most excellent search bar

Know more

General info:

If operating systems ran the airlines...

UNIX Airways
Everyone brings one piece of the plane along when they come to the airport. They all go out on the runway and put the plane together piece by piece, arguing non-stop about what kind of plane they are supposed to be building.
Everybody pushes the airplane until it glides, then they jump on and let the plane coast until it hits the ground again. Then they push again, jump on again, and so on...
Mac Airlines
All the stewards, captains, baggage handlers, and ticket agents look and act exactly the same. Every time you ask questions about details, you are gently but firmly told that you don't need to know, don't want to know, and everything will be done for you without your ever having to know, so just shut up.
Windows Air
The terminal is pretty and colourful, with friendly stewards, easy baggage check and boarding, and a smooth take-off. After about 10 minutes in the air, the plane explodes with no warning whatsoever.
Windows NT Air
Just like Windows Air, but costs more, uses much bigger planes, and takes out all the other aircraft within a 40-mile radius when it explodes.
Windows XP Air
You turn up at the airport, which is under contract to only allow XP Air planes. All the aircraft are identical, brightly coloured and three times as big as they need to be. The signs are huge and all point the same way. Whichever way you go, someone pops up dressed in a cloak and pointed hat insisting you follow him. Your luggage and clothes are taken off you and replaced with an "XP  Air" suit and suitcase identical to everyone around you as this is included in the exorbitant ticket cost. The aircraft will not take off until you have signed a contract. The inflight entertainment promised turns out to be the same Mickey Mouse cartoon repeated over and over again. You have to phone your travel agent before you can have a meal or drink. You are searched regularly throughout the flight. If you go to the toilet twice or more you get charged for a new ticket. No matter what destination you booked you will always end up crash landing at Whistler in Canada.
Windows7 Airlines
"Business class" XP. More leg room, cushier seats. You may not crash land, but you'll still end up at Whistler.
GNU/Linux Air
Disgruntled employees of all the other OS airlines decide to start their own airline. They build the planes, ticket counters, and pave the runways themselves. They charge a small fee to cover the cost of printing the ticket, but you can also download and print the ticket yourself.
When you board the plane, you are given a seat, four bolts, a wrench and a copy of the seat-HOWTO.html. Once settled, the fully adjustable seat is very comfortable, the plane leaves and arrives on time without a single problem, the in-flight meal is wonderful. You try to tell customers of the other airlines about the great trip, but all they can say is, "You had to do what with the seat?"
Ubuntu Air, Android Airways
Seeing a great opportunity, a group of people use their marketing and psychology skills to promote versions of GNU/Linux that have the added feature of speaking out of two sides of its mouth.
It draws people in with pretty colors and graphics in a "user-friendly" interface, and while emphasizing the wonderfulness of "community", "open source", and "freedom", it piece by piece discards the things that make linux linux (which the younger people, newer to linux, are not even aware of), funnels the users' application install choices towards its own preferences, shows advertising, captures its users personal data on its own servers, and, like in Animal Farm, ultimately is not only no different than any of the "Windows" Airlines it is supposedly replacing, but is even more commercial, venal, and immoral.
Big thank you to ...
(however, neither they nor anyone else are responsible for the Ubuntu/Android bit!)

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